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NTM TN 7; 20200602 HVO WTT data

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NTM Technical Notation

NTM TN 7; 20200602 HVO WTT data

 NTM basic data on Hydrogenated vegetable oil (HVO) includes six different sources of origin:

  • Tall oil
  • Animal fat
  • Rapeseed oil
  • Palm oil
  • Palm Fatty Acid Distillate (PFAD)
  • Used cooking oil (UCO)

The mix for different components of HVO is based on statistics from the Swedish Energy Agency from 2018. The emission factors are based on Källmén et.al (2019) but has been partly adjusted. The data in Källmén and the adjustments are mainly based on data from Sphera (2019). The allocation of emissions between products during HVO production (HVO, biogasoline, electricity, steam) is based on energy content in order to align with the EU Renewable Energy Directive (RED). However, for upstream processes and for processes represented by readymade LCI databases other methods for allocation may have been adopted which are mentioned below.

The market for HVO has been developing rapidly in Sweden during recent years. As a result, the available data for production of different types of HVO is limited. This is especially the case for local pollutants such as PM, NOx and SOx where the data has been hard to compare with other references.

The emissions for infrastructure at the production facility and in distribution of biogas is assessed to be neglectable (<1% of total emissions).

Tall oil

In the calculations tall oil is considered as a residue and has therefore not been allocated any upstream emissions from the value chain. Production of HVO is calculated assuming Nordic conditions, representing a production facility in Sweden.

Animal fat / Slaughterhouse waste

In the calculations, animal fat is considered as a residue and has therefore not been allocated any upstream emissions from the value chain (such as livestock production) apart from the impacts occurring during the rendering process as modelled in Nikander (2009). Production of HVO is calculated assuming European conditions in this case, represented by data from a production facility in Finland.

Rapeseed oil

The calculation considers three main processes: rapeseed production, rape oil mill operation and HVO production as well as transportation between these processes. Data on rapeseed cultivation and crude rape oil production were retrieved from Sphera (2019). Allocation based on energy content is considered between crude rapeseed oil and rapeseed meal. Production of HVO is calculated assuming European conditions, represented by data from a production facility in Finland.

Palm oil

In the calculations Palm oil is considered as a main product and has therefore been allocated with upstream emissions from the value chain, using economic allocation. The production of palm oil takes place in Malaysia. Palm oil is then transported to Europe where it is converted to HVO. Production of HVO is calculated assuming European conditions, represented by data from a production facility in Finland.

Palm Fatty Acid Distillate (PFAD)

In the calculations PFAD is considered as a by-product and has therefore been allocated with parts of the upstream emissions from the value chain. Economic allocation is considered in this case between the obtained products; palm oil and PFAD. PFAD is produced in Malaysia and then transported to Europe to be converted to HVO.  Production of HVO is calculated assuming European conditions, represented by data from a production facility in Finland.

Used cooking oil (UCO)

In the calculation’s UCO is considered as a residue and has therefore not been allocated any upstream emissions from the value chain apart from the impacts occurring during UCO collection and transport to the HVO production facility. Production of HVO is calculated assuming European conditions, represented by data from a production facility in Finland.

References

Energimyndigheten (2019) Drivmedel 2018 – Redovisning av rapporterade uppgifter enligt drivmedelslagen, hållbarhetslagen och reduktionsplikten. ER 2019:14. Available at http://www.energimyndigheten.se/fornybart/hallbarhetskriterier/

Källmén, A., et. al., (2019) Well-to-wheel LCI data for HVO fuels on the Swedish market. Report

No 2019:04, f3 The Swedish Knowledge Centre for Renewable Transportation Fuels, Sweden.

Available at www.f3centre.se

Nikander, S. (2009) Greenhouse gas and energy intensity of product chain: Case study on transport biofuel. Master thesis. Helsinki University of Technology, Finland

Sphera (2019) GaBi Database Service Pak 39

NTM data, assessed by IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute