18- Abbreviations and glossary
|Energy recovery by braking using the engines as generators thus feeding back electricity to the rail network.
|NTMCalc supports several calculation models. There are two major models:
a) shipment transport where emissions generated by a vehicle are allocated to the shipment in proportion to its use of the total carrying capacity, and b) vehicle operation which calculates the gross emissions generatade by running a vehicle. Within each model there are several options for input data, e.g. shipments can be sized by volume, weight, etc, and vehicle operation by distance or consumed amount of fuel. All models are not available for all types of vehicles, e.g. shipment size in tonne-kilometres cannot be applied to air freight since emissons per tonne is not linear to the distance (distance and cargo weight must be entered as separate figures).
|Cargo carrier capacity (volume)
|Maximum volume load capacity of the vehicle
|Cargo carrier capacity (weight)
|Maximum weight load capacity of the vehicle.
|Cargo load factor (volume)
|The percentage of the vehilce's capacity to carry volume payload that is actually utilized
|Cargo load factor (weight)
|The percentage of the vehilce's capacity to carry weight payload that is actually utilized
|Freight train cargo types
Average: general cargo of different nature, eg, machine parts, vehicles, consumer goods, household appliances etc.
Bulk: commodity cargo, such as petroleum, grain, coal, or gravel, that is transported unpackaged in large quantities.
Volume: cargo with low density, often packed on pallets or in containers.
|Commercial volumetric factor
|The volumetric weight of a shipment is calculated by multiplying it's volume by the commercial volumetric factor (typical value is 0.25 tonnes/m3).
|Measured amount of fuel consumed by a single vehicle or fleet of vehicles
|The travelled distance of a shipment, passenger or vehicle.
|EU 27 mix
Green mix (10% wind, 90% hydro)
|Empty positioning factor
|The portion of the transport distance that the train, on average, will run empty due to unbalances in cargo flows. If the factor, for eaxmple, is set to 0.5, and the transport distance is 100 km, then the train will run empty for an extra 50 km in connection to the transport.
|The car engine size measured by litres.
<1.4l: Engine size is less than 1.4 litres.
1.4 - <2l: Engine size is from 1.4 litres up to, but not including, 2 litres.
≥2l: Engine size is 2 litres or bigger.
|The emission standard of the vehicle, as defined by European Union directives. It regulates the limits for exhaust emissions of new vehicles sold in EU member states. SCR (Selective Catalytic Reduction) and EGR (Exhaust Gas Recirculation) technologies reduces NOx emissions.
Euro 4: Weighted average of Euro 4 vehicles with either SCR or EGR NOx reduction.
Euro 4 - SCR
Euro 4 - EGR
Euro 4: Weighted average of Euro 5 vehicles with either SCR or EGR NOx reduction.
Euro 5 - SCR
Euro 5 - EGR
Average - Swe: EuroClass regulated emissions are set to levels reflecting the weighted average values of the Swedish flotilla.