Network for Transport Measures

Fuels and power supply data


Calculating the environmental impact of a carried out transport service should include the resource consumption of inputs, primarily fuel and electricity consumption and the emissions generated by transport activity. The extent of resource use and emissions to include is determined by the system limits set for environmental assessment. According to various studies supportive and indirect activities of transport service constitutes a significant part of overall resource consumption and transport emissions . With a system boundary that includes support and indirect activities more environmental factors and resource use are added. This will generally make the estimation more extensive and complex. Below are given a comprehensive breakdown of the various relevant systems boundaries:

Figure 1. System boundaries of the transport system

System boundary A, including traffic and transport related activities regarding engine operation for the propulsion and equipment for climate control of goods, and losses in fuel tanks and batteries.

System boundary B, which includes the supply of energy from energy source to the tank, battery and electric motor (trains). System boundary B together with system boundary A is the minimum required transport system for performance comparisons between different modes of transport. System boundary C, traffic infrastructure operation and maintenance System boundary D, vehicle, vessel, load units production

The above system boundaries should not be seen as mutually inclusive or exclusive, but rather as a sub-sample that can be added or subtracted, depending on the environmental assessment aim. Altogether, there are some important rules which must be fulfilled when defining the system boundary:

A) Environmental performance assessment outcomes must include a description of system boundaries. B) Comparison of different transport solutions must be done with comparable and relevant systems boundaries C) Comparison of the same transport system over time must be done using the same system boundary.

Figure 2. Propulsion and fuel supply of the transport system


For comparison between transport systems the following aspects needs to be considered: 1) Electric motor; electric power for vehicle/vessel propulsion directly linked to electric distribution grid through pantograph is generated simultaneously with consumption at optimum production plant (production costs and market situation). 2) Plug-in electric motor; electric power for vehicle/vessel propulsion through accumulators (batteries) generated at demand or at optimum production plant and time (production costs and market situation). 3) Combustion engines; transport fuels for vehicle/vessel propulsion with combustion engine is being produced at demand or at optimum plant and time related to production costs and market demand. In all three cases of traffic the transport fuels for vehicle/vessel propulsion have been preceded by processes that enable the delivery of electricity or fuel, which means that the whole operational upstream processes must be included.

More methods and data from NTM:
Alternative fuels



For the last two years NTM has actively participated in the development of a new European CEN standard, prEN 16258:2012“Methodology for calculation and declaration of energy consumption and GHG emissions of transport services (freight and passengers)”.

The development phase is now finalized and during 2012 the CEN will vote on acceptance or non acceptance of the standard. The outcome of this voting is difficult to predict but a general feeling is that standard will be accepted.

The standard is presently in the process of being determined, ending by publishing the standard in the end of 2012. This will unfortunately delay the distribution of relevant and important basic fuel and power supply data developed in the process that is essential for assessment of well to wheel energy use and emissions of green house gases.

NTM therefore publish these key information as a set of preliminary data for our members. This data must be dealt with very cautiously as it may change and NTM will adapt the below data accordingly.

NTM will, on a regular basis update the tables and information below. Please note that it is your own responsibility to regularly check updates on this data. NTM does not guarantee full stability of this data.

The value selected includes all upstream operational processes in a well to wheel approach.

If bio fuel is used, the reduction of CO2e methodology must be consistent with Directive 2009/30/EC and any amendments to this directive.

If a value is taken from one source for a tank-to-wheels energy or GHG emission factor of a transport fuel, then the corresponding value for the well-to-wheels factor should be obtained either directly from the same source, or by addition of the value of the well-to-tank factor from another source. This well-to-wheels factor should not be taken directly from another source

Table 1. Transport fuels: density, energy factor and GHG emission factor.


Conventions and calculations based on:

JEC Well-to-Wheels Analysis, version 3c 2011 – TTW Report v3c July 2011

Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, 2007

2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories, Volume 2 Energy, Chapter 3 Mobile Combustion, Table 3.2.2 “Motor Gasoline – Low Mileage Light Duty Vehicle Vintage 1995 or Later”, “Default”

Table 2 Electricity factors

NTM Railway report